"You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete."

Buckminster Fuller, philosopher, futurist and global thinker (1895 - 1983)
"History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives"

Abba Eban
"Then I say the Earth belongs to each generation during its course, fully and in its right no generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its existence"

Thomas Jefferson, September 6, 1789
Under the patronage:

Perspectives on 100% Renewable Energy Systems around the World

Moderator: Prof. Henrik Lund

Climate action is urgent and the ambitions is to reduce the emissions from fossil fuels by deploying large-scale renewable supply in energy systems. The ambiguous aim is to reach for the 100% Renewable energy solution. Such energy supply would support the implementation of several of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.

The SDEWES conferences has been among the frontrunners in introducing and leading the scientific discussion on how to design and implement 100% Renewable Energy solutions. In recent years, the research in this field has gained increasing attention. Since 2004, at least 180 scientific articles has been published on the field and the numbers are increasing. Most studies analyse energy systems for the final 100% renewable state, while a small, though increasing, number also investigate energy transition pathways; how to reach the target. Europe, and thereafter the US and Australia, are well researched, while other parts of the world lack behind.

This panel present a status on these efforts in essential parts of the world and discuss the perspectives on 100% Renewable Energy Systems around the world.

Prof. Christian Breyer
LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
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Prof. Neven Duić
University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
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Prof. Mark Z. Jacobson
Stanford University, Stanford, United States
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Prof. Xiliang Zhang
Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
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The sustainability of plastic and its alternatives

Moderators: Prof. Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Ms. Yee Van Fan

Plastic waste has received high research attention in the recent year due to its impact on the ecosystem. The plastics frequently have a short retention time (user phase) and improper disposal, not complying with the circular economy. Recycling is a promoted practice. However, the implementation is costly and requires advanced technologies due to the sensitiveness to composition (type), colour and contaminants. Some amount of plastic waste is claimed to be recycled by exporting into the developing countries; however, it has not always happened and created even political tensions.

Plastic material has similar or even better characteristics such as corrosion resistant, water resistant, versatility, durable, cheap, lightweight compared to metal, paper or wood. Bio-based plastic and degradable plastics also have its own footprint. Complete displacement of plastic may not be more sustainable, and it has to be assessed with the support of a comprehensive quantitative accounting method.

The panel presents the plastic waste issues (including the utilisation) and aims to discuss the perspective on the following topics:

  • Plastic Leakage (debris to micro)
  • Disposal Solution and the Implementation of Plastics Ban
  • Footprints (Plastic, Energy, GHG) and Accounting Methodology
  • Replacement and Sustainability of its Alternatives
  • Roles of Academia and Policy Makers


Benchmarking the performance of cities across energy, water and environment systems
related metrics presents an opportunity to trigger policy learning, action, and cooperation to bring cities closer to sustainable development.